Hyperpigmentation is the medical term used to describe the condition in which certain areas of the skin become darker. Hyperpigmentation is often the result of sun exposure but other common causes are hormones, especially hormonal changes due to pregnancy or the pill. Genes are also factors in determining how likely you are to get brown spots. For example, olive complexions are more predisposed to pigmentation. There's also PIH (post inflammatory hyperpigmentation) which is caused by injury to the skin. Acne and eczema are common culprits for PIH.
There are a couple of options that I recommend for the treatment of hyperpigmentation:
Hydroquinone - This skin lightening agent prevents the overproduction of melanin from occurring, while lightening the brown spots on the skin. EpiQuin® Micro is an excellent prescription cream for the treatment of hyperpigmentation, containing 4% hydroquinone, as well as retinol and antioxidants.
TNS Hyperpigmentation System® - This system includes EpiQuin® Micro mentioned above as part of a complete daily regimen with products that work collectively to improve and prevent hyperpigmentation, melasma, photodamage, fine lines and wrinkles.
Chemical Peels - Chemical peels such as Vitalize Peel® use a mild acid solution to remove dead and damaged upper skin layers with minimal irritation. The result is a smoother and more even complexion and a reduction in pigment changes. You should also notice a more youthful appearance. Chemical peels can also be combined with EpiQuin® Micro and TNS Hyperpigmentation System to optimize results.
Whichever of the above you and your medical professional decide, your skin will be more sensitive to the sun while undergoing any of these treatments so make sure to use a sunscreen and limit sun exposure.
EpiQuin Micro should be tested for skin sensitivity prior to use. Excessive inflammatory responses are contraindications to further use, while minor redness is not. Hydroquinone may produce unwanted effects if not used as directed. The safety of topical hydroquinone use during pregnancy has not been established.